Why do stock prices change ?: An explainer

Stock price changes

Stock markets can be intriguing to understand as various factors impact their functioning. Understanding the reason for stock price change is integral to making profits in the capital markets. In other words, this information would help investors buy or sell stocks, furthering profit maximization. This article will discuss in detail the factors that impact stock prices.

Factors that affect stock prices

Stock prices change due to various factors, including supply and demand, company performance, and broader economic and political trends. Demand and supply are crucial factors in determining share prices. When there are more buyers than sellers, the demand for the stock increases, driving up the price. Conversely, when there are more sellers than buyers, it drives down prices.

Company performance is also a significant factor. If a company reports good financial results or positive news, it can increase investor confidence and lead to a higher stock price. On the other hand, poor performance or negative news can lead to a decrease in investor confidence and a lower stock price.

Economic and political factors can also impact stock prices. Changes in interest rates, inflation, or government policies can affect the broader economy and influence investor sentiment, impacting stock prices. Additionally, geopolitical events, such as wars or natural disasters, can play a role.

To sum up, the price of shares changes due to a complex interplay of factors, and predicting these changes can be difficult. Investors often use various techniques, such as technical or fundamental analysis, to anticipate changes in stock prices and make informed investment decisions. Here are some likely reasons that influence the course of stock prices.

Government policies

Government policies and regulations can impact the economy and investor sentiment, influencing share prices. If a government hikes corporate tax rates or excise duty on specific items, it can negatively affect business sentiment and stock prices. Sector-specific regulations that impact some industries, like tobacco, can affect firms in the sector and their stocks.

Interest rates and inflation

Changes in interest rates and inflation can impact stock market prices as they affect the cost of borrowing and the economy’s overall health. Higher interest rates and inflation can increase borrowing costs and reduce consumer spending, lowering company earnings and stock prices.

Exchange rates

Exchange rates can impact stock market prices as they affect the competitiveness of companies that import or export goods. A stronger local currency can make exports more expensive and reduce demand, lowering company earnings and stock prices. Conversely, a weaker currency can boost exports and increase stock prices.

Market trends

Stock market trends refer to the direction and momentum of equity prices over time. This can include upward trends, where prices are generally rising, or downward trends, where prices are generally falling. Various factors, including economic conditions and investor sentiment, can influence trends.

Economic factors

Economic factors like interest rates, inflation, and growth can influence equity prices. Positive economic indicators can increase investor confidence and lead to higher prices, while negative indicators can lead to lower prices. Economic factors also impact companies’ earnings and performance, affecting stock prices.

Monetary policy of RBI and regulatory policies of SEBI

Policies framed by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) influence market trends, exchange rates, interest rates, and inflation. The RBI Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) periodically examines policies related to several economic parameters. Besides adjusting the crucial benchmark interest rates, the RBI MPC also provides a snapshot of the economic direction in the form of GDP projections, agricultural output patterns, industrial outlook, and an estimation of the global outlook. On the other hand, the market regulator SEBI intervenes to ensure the smooth functioning of exchanges and stock markets. Therefore, stock market investors must keep track of RBI and SEBI directives.


It’s important to note that investing in stock markets carries risks, and investors should carefully consider their goals, risk tolerance, and investment horizon before making any investment decisions. It’s also good to consult a financial advisor or professional before investing.

Investors should assess the financial health of the company they are considering investing in. This includes revenue, profitability, debt levels, and cash flow. They can also look at cues at the sectoral and overall trends in the area that the company operates in. These could include factors such as competition, regulation, and consumer trends. Given the importance of quality management, investors must look at the track record of a company’s leaders, their experience in the industry, and their strategic vision for the company. Above all, valuation is a crucial factor in comparing with peers. Metrics such as price-to-earnings, price-to-book, and price-to-sales ratios will also help investors decide on buying, selling, or holding. Good investors understand the value of research and diligently pay attention to macroeconomic indicators such as interest rates, inflation, and unemployment rates, which can impact the stock market’s overall performance.


How does stock price change?

The supply-demand of investors primarily drives the price of a share or a stock within an exchange. For example, a stock A trading on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) could be in demand owing to a favorable announcement from the company, resulting in investor interest and hence an increase in the stock price.

How do stock prices increase?

In a stock exchange, the price of a stock increases according to supply and demand. For a better understanding, imagine a market with a huge demand for a particular fruit, leading traders to increase its price.

How does share price increase or decrease?

Several factors affect the supply-demand and investor interest. Factors within an organization such as corporate results, announcements, strategic deals, fresh customer acquisitions, and export potential certainly cause volatility in price. External factors, such as the regulatory environment, economic factors, sectoral developments, exchange rates, market trends, and geopolitical events, could increase or decrease prices.

What makes a stock price change?

Stock prices change due to various factors such as company performance, economic conditions, investor sentiment, industry trends, and changes in interest rates.

How are stock price changes calculated?

Stock price changes are calculated by finding the percentage change, which involves subtracting the initial price from the final price, dividing by the initial price, and multiplying by 100.

Do stock prices change automatically?

No, stock prices do not change automatically. They are influenced by market forces, primarily supply and demand. When demand exceeds supply, prices rise; when supply exceeds demand, prices fall.

How does a stock move in price?

Stock prices move based on factors like supply and demand, economic conditions, company performance, and investor sentiment. Changes result from a complex interplay of these influences.

Disclaimer: Risk is fundamental to the investment process in Indian stocks. Any discussion of securities in this article should not be considered a recommendation to buy or sell any security. The facts provided are for informational purposes only and should not be considered investment/financial advice from CoinSwitch.

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